I’ve been preoccupied with two people this year. The first, of course, is William Shakespeare. The other, alack, is Donald Trump.
I’ve avoided writing about the latter. It’s not that I don’t see the man everywhere in Shakespeare’s plays. I see him in Richard III’s Machiavellian machinations. In Richard II’s incompetence, overreach, and rashness. I see him in Iago’s Janus-faced manipulations. In Timon of Athen’s extreme egotism. In the glib sexual presumption of Falstaff as he appears in The Merry Wives of Windsor.
It’s that I’ve wanted to keep the two separated. Maybe because I’ve felt the connections were too pat, that discussing today’s politics would be such an obvious, unoriginal move. Maybe because I haven’t wanted to talk about him – because he’s all we ever talk about anymore.
You don’t get to ruin Shakespeare, too, damnit.
Or maybe it’s because, in spite of my efforts to make sense of my mundane life in 2016, I’ve ended up seeking escape in the Bard, trying to locate, somehow, even my self-divulging, self-indulging reflections in a kind of sacrosanct timelessness I want unsullied by the small, groping, orange hands of the 45th president of the United States. You don’t get to ruin Shakespeare, too, damnit.
But if there’s one thing I’ve learned from Shakespeare, it’s that all politics is personal.
I’m shocked. I’m angry. I’m scared. I’m eager for action – no, this middle-class white guy isn’t pretending this essay on Shakespeare makes a meaningful difference. But I’m also longing to understand. To understand my country. To understand people I know – family, for God’s sake – who cast their vote for a bigot. To understand “what happened,” as we’ve been widely referring to Trump’s election.
And it’s this “what happened” that I’ve been stuck on when it comes to Trump and Shakespeare. “What happened?” we ask, bewildered, when Othello kills Desdemona. “How the hell did this happen?” we ask when Lear cradles a dead Cordelia. “Why in God’s name did we end up here?” when ask, beholding Macbeth’s bloodbath. “What happened?” millions of America’s are asking, dazed and gobsmacked, since November 9. The aftermath all seems so unlikely, so improbable, so dramatic. Too dramatic. Laughably dramatic.
What Leontes wreaks is catastrophic, but his original sin is all too ordinary.
Like in The Winter’s Tale. In this romance play, Leontes, King of Sicilia, sees his wife, Hermione, innocently clasp hands with his lifelong friend and King of Bohemia, Polixenes. He becomes paranoid. He silences his advisers. He plots to kill Polixenes. He imprisons his wife, who is pregnant and gives birth while jailed. He wants the newborn burned until deciding to have her abandoned in the wilderness. And, oh my, the ways he talks about women: hag, harlot, callat, hobby-horse, thing. (I’d like to say I’m fishing for Trumpian comparisons here, but no. It’s all there.) And Leontes causes so much terror and stress it ends up killing Leontes’ dear son and Hermione.
How did this happen?
The events are so hyperbolic that we tend to attribute it to larger-than-life personalities and passions, to outsized faults and flaws. Celebrities and Shakespearean villains – they’re just not like us. But we confound the outcome with the cause. What Leontes wreaks is catastrophic, but his original sin is all too ordinary: “I have too much believed mine own suspicion,” Leontes plainly sums it when he first reckons with the death of his wife and son (3.2.149).
Shakespeare, in that extraordinary way the playwright takes us into that interior stage of the mind, lets us glimpse how ‘it happened’ for Leontes. As he works himself up into a frenzy, Leontes rampages:
…Is whispering nothing?
Is leaning cheek to cheek? Is meeting noses?
Kissing with inside lip? Stopping the career
Of laughter with a sigh? – a note infallible
Of breaking honesty. Horsing foot on foot?
Skulking in corners? Wishing clocks more swift,
Hours minutes, noon midnight? And all eyes
Blind with the pin and web but theirs, theirs only,
That would be unseen be wicked? Is this nothing?
Why then the world and all that’s in’t is nothing,
The covering sky is nothing, Bohemia is nothing,
My wife is nothing, nor nothing have these nothings
If this be nothing. (1.2.286-98)
What happened? How did we get here? It was a whisper. It was nothing.
We read Shakespeare, we often say, because of how profoundly he probes and depicts human nature. We try to distill his characters down to raw elements: jealousy, ambition, power, hesitation, arrogance, suspicion. Yes, these, but I think Shakespeare ultimately strikes a deeper vein: irrationality.
It seems Shakespeare had something in common with the Founding Fathers: a belief in self-government, and just how radical an experiment it really is.
We, as humans, like to think we’re rational actors. That we make decisions based on the best available evidence. That we weigh choices based on risk and reward. Which is why Shakespeare’s Lears and Macbeths and Leontes evoke so much outrage, pity, and pathos. Why wouldn’t Lear just listen to what Cordelia was saying to him? Why did Macbeth carry out his assassinations in spite of his persistent moral reservations? How could Leontes let his suspicions get so out of hand and so quickly? If only they could see what they were doing, all the suffering, all the loss, all the grief, all the blood and gore would have been avoided. I would never act like that, we tell ourselves as Lear roves the heath and Macbeth talks to imaginary daggers. This is not what I would have done, we say as Leontes, foaming with self-feeding, despotic jealousy, justifies his anger.
Which is precisely why Shakespeare’s tragic figures are so horrifying. Because we do act like them. Because we’re irrational. We turn petty grievances into catastrophes. We let slights fester into disease. We take revenge on others because we are small, broken, needy beings. All for appearing right, to be recognized, not thinking ahead to, and never actually really wanting, the wreckage our egos leave in their wake. We feel guilty when we finally get what we say we want.
As Paulina, Hermione’s faithful attendant, stands up to Leontes:
…Thy tyranny, together working with thy jealousies –
Fancies too weak for boys, too green and idle
For girls of nine – O think, what they have done,
And the run made indeed, stark mad, for all
Thy bygone fooleries were but spices of it. (3.2.177-82).
We’re Leontes, ruled by the petty, childish tyrannies of our unreason – and our blind insistence otherwise – that bemonsters, Hulk-like and Hyde-like, whispers into so much woe. It seems Shakespeare had something in common with the Founding Fathers: a belief in self-government, and just how radical an experiment it really is.
Leontes repents. Sixteen years later, magically, it turns out his baby daughter, Perdita, had survived and was raised by a shepherd in Bohemia, where Polixenes’ son, Florizel, has fallen in love with her. But Polixenes will not have his son marry some country girl and responds with all the tyrannical violence of Leontes. The lovers flee to Sicilia, where Leontes reunites with his daughter and discovers Paulina, Hermione’s attendant, has been keeping the queen alive as a statue all this time.
It’s romantic idea, America, but is it a Romance play, where what’s lost is found, what’s divided is reunited? America’s going to need some repentance. It’s going to need some time. It’s going to need a whole lot of self-government, and that starts with checking our inner, irrational autocrats.
Some fairy-tale magic wouldn’t hurt, either. “It is required / You do awake your faith,” Paulina tells Leontes’ court when Hermione’s statue comes alive (5.3.94-95). But we should remember that while Leontes cried in the chapel everyday for 16 years, Paulina was attending to the statue of her Queen every day. That doesn’t just take faith. It takes commitment and discipline – which require self-government.
And it’s not lost on me that the person who stands up to the tyrant, who puts in the work, is a woman.
105 thoughts on “Shakespeare, Trump, and radical experiments of self-government: The Winter’s Tale”
This is AMAZING!!!!
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You are most welcome 😊 John
Hi, You know I have been thinking about Leontes and Trump the same way and finally decided to google the idea to see if anyone else is out there obsessing over these striking similarities! Thank you for your essay. What I keep coming back to is when studying Shakespeare, I remember being told that The Winter’s Tale, and Leontes’ character is not well developed and that is usually the condemnation of the play. And yet, I say we have been watching similar undeveloped motivations for four years with our # 45 and he is such a Leontes, that is seems as if Shakespeare hit the character on the head.
And then Polixenes behavior with Florizel! I like that you point out that this is a part of some men’s composition– the potential for this irrationality. Not an isolated incidence.
Also, I wonder if you find the detailed description and focus of the male childhood friendship at all disturbing, in that it would seem they never quite grew up– and somehow that is more than the normal “glory days’ remembrance– born out of ego, elitist upbringing, male dominant tendencies.
Nancy Pelosi is my Paulina!
And yes, you will see my last name is Trump–ironic, but no relation!
One of the most enticing things I have ever read! I definitely see a manipulative Iago inside of Trump with his devious and sexist ways, your comparison is so unusual yet it makes so much sense.
Oh – How I would like to sit down with a cup of coffee and talk and talk about this. So right you are. I live in the midwest – Trump country . It is tough and deeply tragic. c
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Thanks! I think we’d need more than just one cup! I drove through some Trump country when I was back home for the holidays. It was quite surreal – and yes, I felt a sense of tragedy, too.
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The only place I see a Trump in Shakespeare is in the line from king Lear, blow wind and crack your cheeks. 🙂 But then I have not looked vary diligently.
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I’ve found him all over the Complete Works. Shakespeare’s plays brim with humanity, and Trump, to put it mildly, is one windy manifestation of it.
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That’s really good!
Ahhhh, I came across this so late! Love this. I’m doing a (Tax) Year of Shakespeare too (plug here: https://staircasewitsite.com/tag/tax-year-of-shakespeare/) – Shakespeare in performance, that is. And it is so very difficult not to see Trumpian parallels in Julius Caesar – and, yes, Winter’s Tale. I likened Leontes’s frothing allergy to logic or persuasion to a Trump voter – but, of course, it is no less true of the man himself – as is his hysterical insecurity. And perhaps there are echoes of the political climate, too, in the play’s suspicion of strangers.
“Frothing allergy”: What a great phrase! And I think all the echoes are resonant, such as the lasting “openness” of Shakespeare’s work. Thanks for linking to your project; it’s fantastic. I
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